According to Vince Meador, DVM, PhD, “not all anatomic pathology findings are detected by clinical pathology, but when they are, they are useful in assisting with determining mechanism, functional effect, and in-life monitoring. Clinical pathology parameters may be premonitory, monitory or post-monitory, primary, secondary or tertiary, and/or specific or nonspecific for the anatomic change.” Dual certified as a Diplomate of American College of Veterinary Pathology in anatomic and clinical pathology, Dr. Meador works closely with the Altasciences team to share his expertise for seamless integration of study results. Integrated anatomic and clinical pathology assessments better characterize toxicity than individual components alone, and mesh to identify when clinical pathology can detect a potential anatomic change before it is adverse to the patient. One such example is when serum hepatocellular enzymes, ALT and AST, increase in the blood (serum) before injury and histologic findings occur in the liver. Determining which tissue changes can be predicted or monitored in-life through the collection of blood and urine from live animals adds significant interpretive value during the conduct of a study and yet it is rarely applied or provided. Anatomic and clinical pathology data form the core datasets for toxicology studies, yet the workflows of both specialties often remain ad hoc and occur in separate “silos” with no direct link between their interpretations and/or reporting systems, even when both assessments are completed by the same organization. Because both sets of data are essential to making correct interpretations of safety and efficacy, the lack of integration between contributors can ultimately be detrimental to the quality of toxicology reports. These unfavorable effects underscore the need for anatomic and clinical pathology workflow integration and communication systems that facilitate the synthesis of all data produced by both specialties. Before choosing a preclinical CRO, it is critical to understand how the organization’s workflows, internal communications, and scientific expertise can impact the quality of your report. By asking the right questions early on, you can determine which CRO is right for you.